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IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks lớn Humans. Red Meat and Processed Meat. Lyon (FR): International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2018. (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks khổng lồ Humans, No. 114.)


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4.1. Digestion and metabolism

The composition of red meat và processed meat, as well as their potential contaminants, is described in detail in Section 1 of this Monograph. Red meat và processed meat are sources of high-unique protein, fat in highly variable amounts, và a range of micronutrients. The impact of the digestion of protein & fat, và the modifications that these macronutrients may undergo in the processing of meat, is addressed in this section. The specific components of red meat and processed meat, including haem iron, lipid oxidation products, heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), và N-nitroso compounds (NOCs), that are potentially involved in carcinogenesis are discussed in Section 4.5.

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On a normal mixed diet, the amount of protein rather than the source determines the quantity that reaches the colon (Silvester & Cummings, 1995). Hence, high-meat, low-fibre diets may stimulate protein fermentation in the colon, producing short- and branched-chain fatty acids, ammonia, phenolic and indolic compounds, và hydroren sulfide (O’Keefe, 2008).

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Bacterial proteases and peptidases are more active sầu when pH is neutral lớn alkaline. In the proximal colon, pH is more acidic due to the production of short-chain fatty acids, primarily from carbohydrate fermentation, but also from reductive deamination of many amino acids. In more distal parts of the colon, pH is higher and protein fermentation becomes more prominent. In relation khổng lồ meat intake, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are the most critical compounds because of their known toxicity (Attene-Ramos et al., 2007; Windey et al., 2012). Meat is rich in sulfur-containing amino acids, possibly leading to lớn higher hydroren sulfide concentrations in the colon. However, hydrogen sulfide in the gut originates from both the fermentation of sulfur-containing amino acids và dietary sulfate.

A diet high in red meat or processed meat may contain high levels of fat. The digestion of food lipids consists of a series of enzyme-catalysed steps resulting in absorbable components, whereby the release of bile from the gallbladder is essential. It has been suggested that dietary fat promotes the development of cancer of the colorectum (Boyle et al., 1985; Reddy, 1992). Several mechanisms have been postulated to explain this association, including the stimulating effect of high-fat intake on the secretion of secondary bile acids in the gut; this proposed mechanism has received the most attention. These bile acids may promote tumour formation by acting as aggressive surfactants on the mucosa, thus increasing cell loss and proliferation (Bruce, 1987; Owen, 1997; Bernstein et al., 2005). Other proposed mechanisms for the promoting role of dietary fat include an increase in the amount of không lấy phí fatty acids in the colonic lumen, which may damage the colonic epithelium và induce cell proliferation, & an augmented risk for obesity (Calle và Kaaks, 2004). Dietary fat intake is also associated with peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids (see Section 4.5.2).

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